Publicaciones

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 113, 2019


Viajes científicos

Itinerarios virtuales como herramientas complementarias a las salidas de campo de Biología Marina


Virtual itineraries as complementary tools for Marine Biology field trips

Aida Verdes, Patricia Álvarez-Campos, Carlos Navarro, Marta Pola & Yolanda Lucas

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 113: 165-176, 2019

Resumen

La realidad extendida combina entornos reales y virtuales mediante interacciones generadas por ordenador, permitiendo extender y ampliar las experiencias sensoriales del usuario. Actualmente, las experiencias de realidad extendida más conocidas son la realidad aumentada (RA) y la realidad virtual (RV) que se están incorporando de manera incremental en áreas que abarcan desde el marketing, a la sanidad. A pesar de que la aplicación de estas tecnologías a la educación es aún reciente, muestran un enorme potencial ya que fomentan de manera significativa la motivación y aprendizaje de los estudiantes, se adaptan a distintos estilos de aprendizaje, reducen en cierta medida desigualdades sociales, y facilitan la inclusividad y atención a la diversidad en el aula. En este trabajo, presentamos un proyecto que incorpora elementos de RA y RV a la docencia universitaria, con el objetivo de proporcionar una experiencia de aprendizaje que favorezca la inmersión en el tema/asignatura y que complemente las prácticas de campo de asignaturas relacionadas con la biología marina. Proporcionamos información detallada sobre el proceso diseño y creación del material para promover y facilitar el uso de estas herramientas a cualquier docente interesado.

Palabras clave: Realidad aumentada, Realidad virtual, Salida de campo, Biología marina, Itinerario virtual, Imagen 360º, Aprendizaje digital.

Abstract

Extended reality technologies combine real and virtual environments through computer generated interactions, allowing to extend and amplify the sensory experiences of the user. Currently, the most widely known extended reality experiences are augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) which are being increasingly incorporated in a wide variety of areas that range from marketing to health care. Despite the relatively recent application of these technologies in education they have already shown an enormous potential, as they significantly improve student motivation and learning, adapt to different learning styles, reduce social inequalities to some extent, and facilitate inclusiveness and diversity practices in the classroom. In this work, we present a project that incorporates AR and VR to university teaching, with the aim of offering an immersive learning experience that complements field work practices in courses related to marine biology and zoology. Using 360º images and the open source software Roundme, we have developed a virtual itinerary through a rocky shore in O Grove (Galicia, Spain), in which students can observe and study the biodiversity associated to the distinct intertidal zones. We have also created an underwater VR 360º video that allows students to experience a virtual SCUBA dive in the Marine Reserve of Parque Natural de Cabo de Gata-Níjar (Almería, Spain). During this virtual dive, students can observe and identify the rich biodiversity associated to Posidonia oceanica meadows as well as other characteristic species and communities of this marine protected area, even if they can’t swim or if they are hundreds of kilometers away from the coast. Lastly, we have also designed an AR app that allows the visualization of representative marine invertebrate 3D models and internal anatomy videos through a smartphone. The 3D models were created with the app Qlone and integrated with QR codes using the software Creator to develop the app VitrinasXR, which can be accessed with the open source app Scope. AR and VR are among the tools with the most potential to revolutionize education, significantly promoting motivation and learning in the classroom. The technological advances and popularity of these tools has made them easy to use for both the teachers and the students, allowing their effective use in education. Specifically, the application of these technologies to develop virtual itineraries and field trips has added benefits, allowing access to students from all socio-economic backgrounds, providing flexibility to adapt to different learning styles, and promoting inclusivity and diversity practices in the classroom. Here, we provide detailed information regarding the design and creation of our marine biology AR and VR teaching materials, in order to facilitate and encourage their use in higher education by any interested party.

Keywords: Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Field trip, Marine biology, Virtual itinerary, 360º image, Digital learning.





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(c) Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Facultades de Biología y Geología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 28040-Madrid - e-mail: rsehno@bio.ucm.es