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RSEHN >> Publicaciones >> Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 114, 2020 >> Comunicaciones especializadas

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 114, 2020. (publicado online)


Comunicaciones especializadas

Publicado online el 12-02-2020

Datos ambientales preliminares del avispón asiático (Vespa velutina Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) en Asturias, España


Preliminary environmental data on the Asian hornet (Vespa velutina Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in Asturias, Spain

Cristiana Rolea Caragata & José Luis Viejo Montesinos

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 114. Publicacin online (12-02-2020)

Resumen

En 2014 se da la primera aparición en Asturias de Vespa velutina Lepeletier, 1836 var. nigrithorax du Buysson, 1905, en Asturias, especie exótica invasora procedente de Asia. Desde entonces los apicultores hacen frente a esta invasión, siendo el sector agrario más afectado. Recientemente, en febrero de 2018, se ha aprobado el Plan de Acción provincial y ya se están tomando medidas de control. En este estudio se recogen datos referentes a la V. velutina, tanto experimentales como bibliográficos, para elaborar un informe preliminar de la situación actual de la invasión en el Principado de Asturias. El principal objetivo es ampliar nuestros conocimientos sobre la biología y ecología de este himenóptero para poder actuar adecuadamente. Se observa una estrecha relación entre la temperatura y el desarrollo del avispón, pudiendo las reinas de este prolongar o acortar su hibernación en función de las temperaturas. Se analizan en este artículo diferentes factores para el desarrollo de la V. velutina: cercanía a cursos de agua dulce y posibles plantas atrayentes. Así mismo, supone un riesgo para otras especies de insectos autóctonos, tales como la abeja (Apis mellifera L. 1758) y el avispón europeo (Vespa crabro L. 1758). Con los datos de nidos es evidente el incremento poblacional en los últimos años.

Palabras clave: Vespa velutina, Avispa asiática, Avispón asiático, Especies exóticas invasoras, Trampeo avispón asiático Asturias, Nidos avispa asiática

Abstract

The first sighting of Vespa velutina Lepeletier, 1836 var. nigrithorax du Buysson, 1905, in Spain took place in 2010 in Navarra (Castro & Pagola-Car te, 2010). In 2014 came the first appearance in Asturias. It is an invasive exotic species from Asia. Since then, beekeepers in Asturias face this invasion, being the worst affected agricultural sector. Recently, in February 2018, the Provincial Action Plan was approved and measures are already being taken. This study includes both experimental and bibliographical data on V. velutina, with the intention of producing a preliminary report on the current situation of the invasion in the Principality of Asturias. There is little information regarding the behavior of this species in our ecosystems. The main objective: to broaden our knowledge of the biology and ecology of this hymenopteran in order to be able to act appropriately. There is a close relationship between temperature and the development of the Asian hornet. The worst affected municipalities in Asturias so fare are Llanes, Valdés and Gijón (Figura 15). The high adaptability of queens is very remarkable, and if the optimal climatic conditions are not present, they can even extend the hibernation period (Figura 10). Different factors for involved in the distribution of V. velutina are analyzed in this article, like proximity to freshwater courses and possible attractive plants. Based on the data obtained (Figura 11), in northern Spain queens in the spring seems to have a preference for citrus, garden plants and other fruit trees, and will be found in areas close to rivers, streams and springs. The species also poses a risk to other native insect species, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L., 1758) and the European hornet (Vespa crabro L., 1758). Trap data show a higher number of captures of V. velutina (both queens and workers) than V. crabro. Since these are non-selective traps for the genus Vespa, it is suspected that the population of the invasive hornet is outnumbering the population of the native hornet. The population growth of the Asian hornet in the last year has increased considerably, as evidenced by the increase in the number of nests in 2018 compared to 2017. Secondary nests are found mostly in trees ranging from 2 to 20 meters (Figura 16). This is a real threat; quick and effective action is urgent. Trapping work is essential, it is recommended that queen trapping should be done in spring and the trapping of workers should be carried out throughout the summer. The removal of nests is carried out through the entire season, depending on the sightings, the sooner a nest is eliminated the less the hornet´s population will grow. In 2017 a larger number of captured specimens was taken in traps placed near nests that had not been removed (Figura 14), so improvements are necessary both in the position of the traps and in the elimination of nests. More scientific research is needed in order to control the species.

Keywords: Vespa velutina, Asian wasp, Asian hornet, Exotic invasive species, Asturias trapping Asian hornet, Asian hornet nests.





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